If an order cycle is considered a standard reference period, α indicates the probability that there will be no deficit in an order cycle equal to the proportion of all non-deficit order cycles (cycle α c {displaystyle alpha _{c}} Service Level): Service level agreements are also defined at different levels: AVAILABILITY This section should describe when the service will be available to end users. End users should be able to specify when they expect the system to be available to achieve the specified work levels. IT must be able to support both planned and unplanned system availability and bring these factors to a level of performance acceptable to end users. When the SLA is ready to be implemented, IT should implement procedures to determine whether service levels are being met. In addition, IT must be able to predict when service levels can no longer be achieved due to growth or other external factors. Requirement 5 (Sensor Interoperability): Sensors – Interoperability for data collection Many types of sensors or even specialized devices from different markets and industries such as healthcare, healthcare, smart home, smart grids, entertainment, gaming or business require interoperability of different sensors within the home network. This includes portable devices connected to a personal network or sensors connected via a home LAN. Despite the interoperability of the sensors between them, this mainly includes interoperability between the sensors and a data acquisition function in the home network. Data sources must have different interfaces, ranging from analog signals to wired and wireless interfaces. Accordingly, appropriate adapters must be defined. It is important to note that it is not clear whether sensor data should be converted immediately at the sensor level into a common format or only into a “transferable” signal; Like what.

an analog signal in a digital signal. The data is then processed at a later date on a server somewhere in the network. An event in which unauthorized access to resources at the system or application level was targeted but was not obtained. A corporate customer uses an Internet Service Provider (ISP) to obtain dedicated Internet access to connect to its remote sites. The customer and the service provider (ISP) agree to the following network service level agreement, which defines the customer`s requirements for the service and the obligations of the service provider. Organizations have long sought service level agreements that help their suppliers provide services that meet their performance requirements. No company wants the credits offered when a service doesn`t live up to the network`s SLA measures. Instead, IT organizations view a network SLA as a standard that reassures them when they first sign contracts with their vendors, and then as an ongoing measure that the managed services they use sufficiently support their business goals. Uptime Guarantee: ColoHouse guarantees 99.9% network uptime. (Availability excludes local loop failures, maintenance windows and other circumstances listed in paragraph 2). There is no guarantee that the Services will be uninterrupted or error-free. AT&T also offers a range of network management tools to support SLAs.

As part of the Client Network Management (CNM) options, customers use two free web-based tools: Order Manager and Ticket Manager. With the Order Manager, customers can enter service orders over the Internet and track their progress. Ticket Manager allows customers to enter crash tickets related to performance metrics. CNM provides weekly and monthly reports on port and PVC usage, discharges, network congestion and other performance factors. CNM can also be used to create exception reports with definable thresholds. The OPS methods used in these DCI transport networks are the same as the protection mechanisms of previously established connection-based networks [48]. These methods include 1:1 wavelength protection (one to one) and 1+1 wavelength protection switching (one plus one). With the 1:1 wavelength circuit breaker, a dedicated protection channel is available for each working WDM channel on a different path in standby mode. (Note that to be truly 1:1, the same wavelength must be reserved for both paths, although only one path is illuminated at a time.) An interesting low-CAPEX architecture of this protection mechanism, better suited to networks limited by connection failures, uses a single transponder whose line-side is connected to a directionless ROADM.

Therefore, if an error is detected on the main path, the system triggers the roadm without direction to automatically switch to the protection path. This scheme also enables 1:N protection, where multiple work paths can be protected by a single protection path. With 1+1 wavelength protection switching, each working channel has a dedicated protection channel and the same payload is sent to both channels simultaneously. In the event of a failure, the receiver switches to the signal from the protection path. This protection scheme is commonly implemented and called Y-cable protection. At 1+1, there are two active wavelength channels that are not necessarily on the same wavelength between endpoints. Note that 1+1 offers faster recovery than 1:1 because both ROADM endpoints continuously receive data and failover by changing the tags that feed the Y-cable. However, 1+1 protection requires twice as many transponders.

Finally, note that these two mechanisms can be combined with recovery, which gives 1:1+R and 1+1+R, respectively, which would add an extra layer of redundancy during an error. Recovery would attempt to dynamically rebuild a new path around a failed connection to restore 1+1 or 1:1 redundancy while the protection channel became the working channel. Given the extensive state of the art in such protection systems, including recent extensive work on advanced 1:1+R and 1+1+R related to WSON (Wavelength Switched Optical Network) [49], the introduction of OPS into INN transport systems has been quite straightforward. Similarly, in most DCI networks, and especially in IRD networks, due to their relatively small size and few nodes, optical recovery in a few tens of ms was possible thanks to most system implementations. With this in mind, OPS`s main goal in implementing DCI was to maintain the overall goal of a highly scalable OLS architecture through the simplicity and disaggregation of the control plane. Requirement 2 (Cost): Low initial investment in the infrastructure of the user`s devices This requirement highlights the need to reuse existing network elements such as set-top boxes, home gateways, smartphones, tablets or specialized devices for different application scenarios. The different services must be independent of the final hardware/software platform and the system must adapt the user interface to the functions of the device. This allows for a gradual introduction of various AAL/ELE services and forms the basis for a positive business case per service. Therefore, the mechanisms for remote maintenance and updating the services of the elements of the home network will be important functions.

The first attempts are TR069 or the OSGi Alliance, which support “dynamic application download”, i.e. support for the integration of dynamic software components (often called bundles) into AAL platforms. Personalization and extensibility are important features of AAL/ELE platforms: Imagine a platform installed in an elderly person`s home to assist in various activities. .